The following acronym is a partial summation of the fundamental principles that I’ve concluded likely allow for the massive extraction of zero point energy via Electron Cluster (Exotic Vacuum Object) production. Although the details are far more nuanced, these guidelines should be helpful in the process of designing systems that could liberate humanity from the shackles imposed upon them by the overlords of the cult of “mainstream” science.
Non-Conducting Dielectric Guide
Short Duration Discharges
Arc Discharge Avoidance
Conductive Plasma Medium
K Value Of Capacitors Supplying Discharge
Longitudinal Magnetic Field Across Electrodes
Emitter Surface Optimization
Deuterated or Hydrogenated Transition or Noble Metals
Now, I’d like to review the above list of principles one by one to explain them in at least brief detail.
A) Unidirectional Pulse – In a traditional design with a current passed between two electrodes, the pulse applied to the cathode should be unidirectional, meaning a pure DC current impulse. The source can be a capacitor, a dynamo, an ignition coil, a piezoelectric element, or a sophisticated waveform generator. However, some of these high voltage sources have a ringing AC component. If possible, in a traditional Ken Shoulders style system, this should be minimized or eliminated to transfer power to the EVO in the most efficient manner possible. Please note, that this doesn’t apply to plasma based systems that produce EVOs utilizing radio or microwave frequencies. Obviously, the power sources for such systems would utilize alternating current.
B) Non-conducting Electric Guide – Once an EVO has been created, it will travel farther if a non-conducting (or at least with minimum conductivity) dielectric guide is utilized. Kenneth Shoulders often used aluminum oxide with a tiny groove not much larger than the electron cluster he intended to produce. Sometimes he would dope the surface with a small quantity of a conductive element, but this was not always required. The guide can also be in the form of a small diameter tube large enough for the charge cluster to travel through. A quartz capillary tube could work well. Please note that smooth guides can actually help allow EVOs to grow (offering a source of electrons) while rough guides can induce destruction of the cluster. Often, he would build what he described as a “dog house” just before the start of the guide. This would be a larger space, with a volume much larger than the narrow guide, which would contain the overall plasma (free electrons and positive ions) that the EVO could then flee from. Basically, the dog house helped segregate the “junk” plasma from the electron cluster.
C) Short Duration Discharges – Generally speaking, short duration electric impulses are the most favorable for EVO production. One reason is that the sudden and violent “ecton” explosion sending electrons in one direction and ionized positive atoms in the other help provide for the conditions that allow electron clusters to form. Ken Shoulders, Nikola Tesla, E. V. Gray, Moray, and a host of inventors with similar devices, all working on EVO generating principles, fought to reduce the duration of their discharges. Another reason to reduce the length of the discharge is to create the electron cluster with the least input possible. As Kenneth Shoulders described in his patents, you can create the exact same EVO out of the “chaos” of the plasma with a long impulse (microseconds) wasting lots of input power or a very short impulse (single nanoseconds) wasting very little power. The result is that the efficiency of the discharge (input energy vs. the energy collected from the electron cluster) is maximized. Obviously, there may be certain systems in which a microsecond pulse might be more efficient than a much shorter one. For example, if you have a tuned resonant circuit that self actuates, the system will probably work best at a certain critical frequency rather than an artificial frequency imposed on the system. Of course in a plasma based system, the radio frequencies or microwaves frequencies used to produce EVOs might need to be adjusted depending upon the gas used (for example a light gas such as hydrogen verses a heavy gas like argon or xenon), the size of the tube, and other factors. Finally, please note that even if you are not producing an arc discharge (which wastes massive energy) any excess plasma production can be a source of wasted energy. This is not to say there are not certain situations in which pulsing a steady state, continually existing glow discharge plasma may not be useful!
D) High Voltage – Higher voltages (combined of course with short duration impulses) produce the most powerful discharges and accelerate EVOs to the fastest velocities, along with any heavy ions they are carrying along via the “warp drive” effect. As always, though, there are always trade offs. If you do not protect your emitter surfaces on the cathode, the explosive “ecton” explosions and/or sputtering from heavy positive ions can destroy your sharp tips or micro-holes. Moreover, higher voltages can often result in emissions that may not be desired in some situations: x-rays, gamma rays, or even outward sprays of smaller EVOs. But as Tesla discovered, higher voltages yield to more profound effects. Most importantly, always put safety first!
E) Arc Discharge Avoidance – Such high current discharges transfer massive power between the cathode and anode, resulting in lowered efficiency. Nikola Tesla, for example, fought hard to find ways to reduce the duration of or completely eliminate arc discharges between his electrodes. Likewise, Paulo and Alexandra Correa’s Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) technology pushes the cathode up to a zone just before arc discharge to emit an EVO. There’s no need to reach a state of arc discharge in most systems. To prevent such a state from occurring, the use of “dog houses”, magnetic quenching, flows of compressed air, fast pulse rates, or resistors immediately before the cathode can be used. Of course there’s always a balancing act. You want to create the most powerful (regardless if that means larger or more numerous) EVO while using the least energy. Reducing your current too low, in some systems, might hinder EVO production. In other systems, an extremely low current and very high voltage might be ideal.
F) Conductive Plasma Medium – Space is conductive to some extent; you can produce an EVO that will travel through pure vacuum. However, it seems that in some setups a gaseous environment can be extremely beneficial depending upon your goals. The plasma produced by an “ecton” explosion on a cathode (producing a surge of electrons, positive ions, and metal spray) is very conductive and satisfactory for producing an EVO. However, one possible method of optimizing EVO production is creating a steady state glow discharge conditon – for low or zero input energy – and pulsing it with a higher voltage to produce electron clusters. Moray did this by incorporating radioactive materials in his tubes. After establishing such a slight glow discharge, his special stones and minerals (sometimes natural and eventually artificially synthesized) would rectify the high voltages collected from his aerial antennas (later he used copper sheets as antennas) and emit EVOs that would be collected by a whisker in the tube connected to the anode. The result is that he produced many kilowatts of power for practically zero input, except the small amount of high frequency power collected by the antenna. A similar setup could be made in a professional laboratory by highly qualified personal (amateurs on their own even in well tooled labs shouldn’t play around with radioactive substances) in which slightly radioactive emitters with a low work function would be pulsed with high frequency DC impulses to produce EVOs in a discharge tube. With today’s technology, the power output could far exceed what Moray achieved. For more information about Moray’s technology, I suggest the book “Lost Science” by Gerry Vassilatos. The book contains a wealth of information. He has another book named, “Secrets of Cold War Technology” that includes a fantastic section on Nikola Tesla.
G) K Value Of Capacitors Supplying Discharge – This is a practical consideration more than anything else. Nikola Tesla and others have destroyed capacitors when producing discharges across electrodes. Dielectric failure is possible for many reasons, including the fact that sometimes in a glow discharge tube producing EVOs there can be a sudden extremely powerful AC backrush of power. Also, the output from a collector grid going to a capacitor can be immense. Capacitors need to built well so they will not face dielectric failure.
H) Longitudinal Magnetic Field Across Electrodes – Eugene Podkletnov’s Gravity Impulse Generator is basically a large scale super conducting version of Kenneth Shoulders EVO generator. What’s interesting to note is that it doesn’t produce the intense gravity impulse beam unless a magnetic field exists with field lines coaxial or in the same direction as the impulse from cathode to anode. He offers a theoretical explanation for this without using the term EVO or electron cluster. In laymen’s terms, to optimize electron positron pair extraction from the vacuum, a certain optimal magnetic field must be present in addition to the electric field. Apparently, the magnetic field produced by moving charged electrons and positive ions isn’t optimal. I’ve read multiple papers indicating that such a magnetic field can help maximize the production of charge clusters, both on the small scale and larger plasmoids. Moreover, I think the magnetic field helps provide the swirl required to organize the electrons into torodial electron clusters. Remember, a straight magnetic field line is not a linear flow like an electric field line. Instead, it represents a tornado of magnetic vector potential which will cause an electron to spiral. I should also note that an external solenoid coil or a permanent magnet based guide around an EVO tube guide could make sure that the majority of EVOs produced impact the anode.
I) Emitter Surface Optimization – Kenneth Shoulders used either sharp pointy tips or narrow walled thin tubes as his EVO emitters. These may not be optimal in all situations. One reason is that they do not allow for a surface area voltage reduction effect. Having a small surface protrusion on a much large flat, planar cathode reduces the voltage required to produce EVOs. Moreover, it seems that such larger plates can produce larger EVOs. The Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge generator of Paulo and Alexandra Correa produced EVOs of approximately one half centimeter. It’s interesting to note that in the paper’s I’ve read larger EVOs will have a greater overall total power but a lower power density for cubic volume. So having many smaller EVOs might sometimes be as good or better than fewer larger EVOs. In addition to utilizing a fine tip on a planar cathode, a small micro-cavity can be used. There are multiple patents describing such tiny, ranging from a few hundred nano-meters to a fraction of a millimeter, hole producing an electron beam for a lower required voltage. In fact, one patent describes a spike or protrusion built into the center of such a hole to optimize the effect further. Often, in these systems, the remaining portion of the cathode is coated in a dielectric insulator to prevent charge leakage from everywhere but the micro-hole. There are many other surface optimization methods that could be tested. For example, nano-diamonds or diamond like carbon (Q-Carbon) could be used to reduce the “work function” required for electrons to be emitted. Graphene and carbon nanotubes incorporated onto a surface can also produce optimizing effects. As mentioned previously, it’s possible that in a professional laboratory environment, a radioactive substance could be doped or added into a cathode to produce a steady state ionized layer that could then be pulsed. Finally, creating a vast number of spikes or an extremely rough, on the nano-scale, surface could create an abundance of sites for EVO production. An extremely efficient system could be to have millions of tiny nano-spires of diamond sticking up through a low work function metal surface.
J) Deuterated or Hydrogenated Transition or Noble Metals – In LENR systems, one way of hydrogenating nickel to create an embrittled layer is to coat the surface with a layer of nano-scale palladium islands that can act as reverse spillover catalysts to break molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. We also know that Andrea Rossi has used nano-diamonds in some of his test systems due to published reports. What’s so important about hydrogenation is that an embrittled nickel hydride layer is produced on the particles, wire, or film. When EVOs produced by a number of different methods, including being emitted from nano-diamonds mixed into the material, strike the embrittled material, fracto-emission can take place. Basically, when an embrittled material like nickel-hydride or palladium-hydride develops an internal crack or fracture, electrons can be emitted which can take the form of small EVOs. These electron clusters can then induce nuclear reactions through a number of routes. The damage produced by additional nuclear reactions can cause more fractures and additional EVO production, resulting in self sustaining reactions. In a system like those used by Kenneth Shoulders, using a hydrogen loaded material for cathode and/or anode may allow for nuclear reactions to take place. These could produce energy in a number of forms, including electron production that could be extracted from the anode. Actually, the anomalous heating in the power supply of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX reactor is likely due to EVO strikes being augmented by LENR reactions producing the same back rush of AC power reported in the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Generator. The addition of small amounts of lithium to the cathode or anode may also boost the power output. Actually, many exotic energy devices using EVOs could be augmented by nuclear reactions produced by the electron clusters. For example, EVO strikes almost always cause isotopic shifting in metal. This could be what causes an increase in the ratio of Ni-62 in the E-Cat.
Although not part of UNSHACKLED, the collection of the output energy must be discussed. I do not feel like Ken Shoulders collection system was optimized at all. In fact, I believe the vast majority of output energy was lost in the form of electron scatter upon EVOs striking the anode, longitudinal radiation, x-rays, EMF, light, and heat. The easiest and lowest hanging fruit are the electron scatter and collection of longitudinal rays coming from the device. Mainstream Traveling Wave Tubes sometimes utilize cup shaped collector anodes to maximize the amount of electrons received by the anode. The explanation is that when electrons hit the anode, a certain number of them will fly away in various directions. Utilizing a cylinder shaped anode will mean that these reflected electrons will still be collected. An EVO striking an anode can often explode, sending electrons and smaller EVOs in all directions. I expect that a huge amount of output is lost due to this. Using a cylinder shaped collection anode could reduce these losses. To collect a greater quantity of the longitudinal rays spraying out from the EVO in all directions as it travels from cathode to anode, I think that long rod shaped conductive wires should be used. The longitudinal waves and some of the EVOs escaping the reactor would travel along the length of the wires. This could collect a huge amount of power. My guess is that the most power would be collected in front of the anode and behind the cathode. This is because magnetic vector potential, which is what composes longitudinal waves, always move in the direction of a charged particle. Since we have charged particles moving towards the anode and cathode, power could be collected from both directions. Additionally, a spherical antenna could be used to collect the longitudinal waves.
I honestly feel that utilization of the UNSHACKLED principles could lead to the development of many radical new ways of producing energy from the vacuum and nuclear reactions.