I’ve been reading perhaps several dozen papers a day on electron clusters, other devices producing similar electron clustering or plasmoid phenomenon, devices such as Traveling Wave Tubes used by industry as amplifiers, and many exotic almost shocking technologies (pun intended). I’ve came up with a number of ideas about how to enhance EVO production from a cathode and increase the output that’s collected from the same device. My ideas will be shared in this post. With zero intention of writing a formal paper, I’ll be letting a stream of ideas flow: some of which may work, some of which may not, and others that might simply be off-base and need adjustment. To completely understand my ideas, you’ll probably need to research a variety of topics, inventions, and read a number of different papers. But I won’t be providing detailed references here. Frankly, I don’t have the desire or time. Events in the field of EVOlogy, which is deeply connected to equally fast moving field of UFOlogy, are zipping along at a pace I’m finding challenging to keep up with!
In a Kenneth R. Shoulders style EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object) generator, a cathode with a sharp tip is typically used. However, if you study his patents which have been previously posted on this blog and are available elsewhere, you’ll find that a hollow, thin walled cathode tube will work as well. This design for an emitter can work well for a few reasons according to Shoulders, including the fact that it can serve as a simple reservoir for a conductive wetting agent that will be drawn by electric forces to the rim, can be easily produced, and can be fired at high frequency. During my research, I’ve discovered that there are many other patents awarded to other inventors that describe tiny pits in a larger area surface (not with narrow tube walls) acting as a cathode. These small pits, especially when the remainder of the cathode surface is covered with an insulating dielectric, can work exceptionally well at producing electron beams at low voltages, depending on their geometry and size (typically the smaller their size the lower voltage is required to produce a beam of electrons). Moreover, in at least one patent, I found a reference to a design that utilized a sharp tip inside of a micro-hole. Basically, in these setups, the geometry of the hole allows for positive ions from the gaseous environment of the tube to repeatedly bounce off the walls of the cavity releasing large numbers of secondary electrons. This process allows for a favorable environment that lowers the barrier for an electron beam to form. I expect that using such a cavity in conjunction with a larger plate (not a thin wire or hollow narrow walled tube like Shoulders used) could allow for larger EVOs to be produced. Specifically, the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) technology of Paulo and Alexandra Correa of the Aetherometry website uses large electrode plates (which happen to develop small micro-tip protrusions) for a surface area amplification effect that produces organized plasmoid structures (EVOs) of half a centimeter in size! My thinking is that by playing around with hole sizes, the materials of the cavity vs. the internal wire inside the cavity, the surface area of the electrode around the hole, the wetting agent used in the hole, and the dielectric material covering the remaining surface of the electrode, some seriously powerful and large EVOs could be produced.
Next, I would like to mention that there are papers describing how magnetic fields from permanent magnets can enhance EVO production. In these papers, the electron clusters are described as “strange radiation.” However, what fascinates me the most is how Eugene Podkletnov’s Gravity Impulse Generator seems to work by producing a large scale EVO, or at least a vast number of smaller ones composing a macro-scale plasmoid. His system is described in more detail in various papers available online, but I’ll give a short description. He uses a superconducting cathode either wrapped in a solenoid or backed with a permanent magnet. Moreover, outside of the one meter diameter quartz tube enclosing the electrodes, another solenoid is wound. The pressure inside the device is controlled along with the composition of the gaseous environment. When a capacitor bank rigged up as a high voltage Marx generator is discharged through the superconducting cathode towards a smaller non-superconducting anode, a pulse is also applied (actually half a second before) to the outer solenoid. Either the large permanent magnet behind the cathode provides a magnetic field OR a magnetic field has been imposed upon the superconducting magnet (which means its continuously circulating) during firing. The plasmoid composed of a large EVO or many smaller EVOs impacts the anode. Fascinatingly, it’s reported that when a sufficiently high voltage is supplied, a beam of a gravity or gravity-like force is produced in the direction of the discharge (finely focused) that can punch holes through brick walls and bend metal plates backwards at a distance of kilometers. He claims that tests have determined the beam, which is obviously composed of a tightly focused stream of magnetic vector potential, propagates at superluminal speeds. Officially, he claims sixty four times the speed of light, but in private communication to researchers he claims up to three thousand times the speed of light. The most relevant detail is that he claims cooper pairs (which are considered to be EVOs by Shoulders and may be the seed of what allows larger EVOs to grow) are emitted from the device. This means that we’re dealing with electron clusters. The second most relevant detail is that the beam of force is only produced and the apparatus only works as intended when a magnetic field is imposed to the cathode! Podkletnov provides a long and detailed explanation in one of his papers. I interpret his explanation as follows. To maximize the coherence of the active vacuum or zero point energy field to extract virtual particles — which may help EVOs form — a magnetic field must be present to optimize the effect. So it seems that he’s discovered that the magnetic field produced by the motion of the charged cooper pairs leaving the cathode isn’t enough. When it comes to building roughly Kenneth Shoulders style EVO generators, I think this means we should test the use of powerful magnets in various configurations, but primarily those that produce field lines that run coaxially to the discharge direction of the EVOs, from cathode to anode. In one example, this would mean placing the appropriate pole of a permanent magnet against the back of the cathode. My thinking is that not only may this allow for a greater extraction of electron positron pairs from the vacuum to assist EVO formation (perhaps allowing for the screening effect that allows electrons to squeeze together defying their mutual electrostatic repulsion), but it may help provide the swirl needed for the optimal toroid shape of the electron vortex to form. A secondary permanent magnet behind the anode may also be used to keep the field lines straight and linear (prevent them from diffusing) as they travel through the discharge tube. Or, perhaps, only using one magnet could be useful for another reason. The electron “mirroring” effect that takes place when an electron travels through an expanding or contracting magnet field could possibly be used to help push the EVOs off the cathode, since they’ll experience an additional force away from the area of greater magnetic field intensity. Magnetic “lenses” or traps could also be used to try and make sure the EVOs stay “bunched up” an confined in a direct path to the anode. Simply put, there are lots of ways to experiment with magnets when testing EVO generators!
I’ve studied Traveling Wave Tubes and other devices that produce electron beams that are collected at anodes. What I’ve discovered is that a huge portion of the output can be wasted if the electron beam hits a flat, planar anode. In commercial Traveling Wave Tubes, often times the anode is shaped as a cup or a cylinder, either with only one side open or even a fairly small aperture. This allows for a far greater quantity of output to be collected. Perhaps the most mundane explanation is that electrons, primary or secondary, bouncing off the end of the cup electrode could be collected by the walls instead of being lost or thermalized. Imagine throwing a balloon filled with water at either a flat wall or a bucket on the wall. When the ball hits a flat wall, some of the water splatters in all directions. A bucket, on the other hand, would collect more of the deflected liquid. The same principle would work with EVOs. There’s another principle that I think is important yet even more controversial. I’ll include it in one of my next posts. To sum up, I’ve never read anywhere about Shoulders utilizing anything but a flat anode. This may be one reason why the wire wrapped around his traveling wave tube EVO device, which collected even more energy than the anode, may have been so important. This wire could have been collecting not only the electrons continually emitted by the EVO during travel but also the back splash from the strike on the anode. If he had used a cup style anode, the quantity of collected energy received by the anode could have went up.
Too boost the amount of power released when an EVO strikes the anode, I suspect that a hydrogenated, embrittled electrode should be used with a surface layer of nickel or palladium hydride. Titanium hydride should also be tested. Basically, EVOs are the likely universal catalyst for LENR. When an EVO strikes, the impact may induce nuclear reactions by a number of different mechanisms: the production of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that can generate slow neutrons which may release energy via isotopic shifting, the induction of thermonuclear fusion events due to entrained positive ions anomalously carrying megaelectron volts of kinetic energy (via the warp drive effect), the generation of even more EVOs deep in the lattice of the metal by fracto-emission leading to self-sustaining heat generation, and the transmutation of elements. My guess is that an anode made out of an embrittled material, with hydrogen bound in the lattice, especially if perhaps made out of a sintered composite of spike covered “carbonyl” nickel powder, could enhance the amount of power collected. This effect could very well be at play in Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX device. To hydrogenate the electrode, I think it should be sputtered by a corona discharge from a positively charged emitter in a hydrogen-argon environment. Multiple cycles should be performed to both roughen the surface and produce a hydride layer. The sintered mix could even be doped with small quantities of other elements such as lithium – an element of Andrea Rossi’s plasma.
One possibly important idea I have is to place strait rods or wires at different positions outside an EVO generator that would allow emitted longitudinal waves (or EVOs) to travel through or along their surface starting at the tip all the way to the end where a wire would be connected to ground. An EVO during travel can be considered as a continual starburst of electrons, small EVOs, and longitudinal waves. These spray out in all directions. To intercept them optimally, I think that that we should test receivers or antennas positioned to allow these impulses to travel through their length. For example, since a gravity impulse beam is simply a flow of magnetic vector potential (aether) which is analogous to an electric field line (which is a flow of the same electron-positron pairs), I wonder if Podkletnov could have placed a long conductive rod — perhaps ten feet to a hundred feet long — in front of his device and allowed the impulse to pass through it from one end to the other in order to collect an electrical impulse. I think that if we placed such a rod (although smaller) or several such rods around an EVO generator, we’d generate electricity. However, if we placed the rod beyond the anode in the path of the discharge, the intensity might be through the roof if the discharge was sufficiently powerful. Moreover, at a certain power level, we might not only notice an electrical effect but a force generated!
When it comes to the gaseous content of an EVO generator, there are many factors to consider. From one perspective, I like the idea of hydrogen because it’s not so heavy that it will immediately damage small emitter structures on the cathode, and we can alternate polarities to create thin hydride layers on the cathode and anode. However, the mix-match of the small mass of electrons and the very heavy mass of gases such as argon and xenon (especially xenon) would produce the greatest anomalous electrodynamic force (probably magnetic vector potential) according to Harold Aspden’s Law of Electrodynamics. In this law, he specifies how when two opposite polarities of charged ions each with different mass are in a plasma discharge moving in opposite directions (for example protons moving towards a cathode and electrons towards an anode) an anomalous longitudinal force will be produced. The effects of this force have been documented by many groups including Paulo and Alexandra Correa that detected an anomalous, powerful bombardment by high energy protons onto their cathode. Likewise, electron clusters can be anomalously accelerated in the opposite direction. To test out the usefulness of Aspden’s Law of Electrodynamics, many gases or combinations of gases should be tested. The good thing is even if we wanted to use pure xenon to get the greatest mismatch in mass between the positive xenon ions and negative electrons, we could still utilize a hydrogen embrittled cathode and/or anode to allow for fracto-emission and slow neutron production and other nuclear effects.
Two final, quick ideas I’ll throw out would be utilizing a thoriated tungsten cathode (which should only be performed in a professional laboratory setting since such a cathode would be slightly radioactive) to achieve, perhaps, a small degree of steady state glow discharge. This could lower the energy input required for EVO production. Also, another idea would be to use substances in the construction of the electrodes that would easily emit what are called “delta rays” which are secondary electrons with enough energy to ionize the gaseous environment. Moray experimented with such elements in his glow discharge tubes that produced kilowatts of excess energy.
Without any doubt, I think Kenneth Shoulders devices could be tremendously optimized to the point where huge quantities of output can be produced. I’m eager to see people start testing.