A friend of mine recently told me that long ago when cars and other vehicles utilized much more primitive ignition systems, the electromagnetic interference could be picked up from a long distance away on an AM radio. This highly interested me. We know from the work of Kenneth Shoulders that every spark discharge is lead by an electron cluster or EVO. Then, after the “streamer” leading the way has left behind a column of ionized gas, more electric current can flow creating much of the light we see when an actual high current arc discharge is created. Since vehicles with internal combustion engines (especially gasoline powered ones) have many components that use high voltage electricity, we know EVOs are involved. Modern vehicles utilize many system to suppress the electromagnetic interference which means they are designed — without the engineers knowing they even exist — to reduce the quantity and/or magnitude of EVOs produced. By looking at these methods of inhibiting EMI/RF generation, we can get an idea of how we could do the opposite and maximize EVO production in experimental zero point energy extracting devices.
First, in the vaguest of terms, let’s look at how a classic automotive ignition system is designed. DC voltage from a battery, for example at twelve volts, is supplied to the primary of an ignition coil which then transforms the voltage to a much higher level. The high voltage electricity from the ignition coil is then routed to a distributor that mechanically opens and closes connections called “points.” From these points, which are rapidly being opened and closed, the high voltage electricity is transferred to the spark plugs which create electrical arcs that ignite the fuel. So as you can see, there are many components that are continuously bombarded by high voltages. The key design change in modern ignition systems is that the electrical current traveling across points and the electrodes of the spark plugs is minimized. For example, a capacitor (called a condenser in automotive systems) is often placed in the distributor to limit the current as the points connect and disconnect. Also, the points often utilize built in resistors utilizing various forms of carbon. Moreover, even spark plugs and/or spark plug wires incorporate built in resistors that minimize current while allowing the high voltage to flow. By doing all this, the electromagnetic or radio frequency interference produced by a vehicle can be reduced by a hundred fold or more. This is very important in modern vehicles because they almost all have computers embedded in them. If these systems are damaged, the vehicle won’t run!
So in modern vehicles, the production of EVOs that would travel across gaps, slam into electrodes, and produce powerful bursts of EMI/RF is inhibited. But to produce exotic effects such as energy extraction from the vacuum (probably by exotic vacuum objects extracting electron positron pairs) or induce Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, we want EVOs! We also want as many of them as possible and we want them as powerful as possible! How do we accomplish this while minimizing input energy to keep the overall COP high? I think the answer is to keep the current and voltage as high as possible but only for the duration of the EVO formation event. Once the electron cluster is formed, the voltage and current should be dropped immediately and/or the discharge path blocked in some manner to prevent an arc discharge (which would dramatically increase input power) from happening.
This seems to go against some of the practices of Kenneth Shoulders in at least some of his systems. For example, to stop an arc discharge from taking place, he’d often put a resistor in the circuit before the cathode to keep current low enough so an arc discharge couldn’t form. However, I don’t think this was the case in all of his systems. He also described reducing the input pulse duration to such a short period that an arc discharge wasn’t produced. Basically, he could reduce his pulse width dramatically down to the nanosecond range and produce the same EVO that he would have generated using a far longer input pulse. We must also remember that for a very long period, he wasn’t attempting to make more powerful EVOs. Instead, he was observing them, taking measurements, observing them visually with his electron camera, and learning how to control them. He was being ultra careful in the name of safety.
I think a great example of how to optimize EVO formation was the work of Nikola Tesla. Some of his systems utilized high voltages and currents, especially in his spark gap systems. A high voltage dynamo would feed one or more capacitors that would be discharged suddenly into the gap between two electrodes. Instead of reducing the current and voltage, he attempted to prevent a full arc discharge from occuring. Building rotary spark gaps to increase the frequency and reduce pulse duration, using pressurized flows of air to disrupt the ionized channel, and placing magnets along the discharge path, he sought to push the gap to break down and then back away to minimize input power. The result was that he claimed to produce “electrical movements” that were many times his input. Even though he had never heard the term electron cluster or EVO, he was producing powerful EVOs that were spraying out longitudinal waves (magnetic vector potential). He harnessed this output with multiple secondary and “extra” coils that he’d connect to round spheres for omnidirectional broadcast and tubes for directional broadcasts.
I’m convinced that the electromagnetic interference around his systems was likely immense. This is because, just like Ken Shoulders observed in his lab, that charged clusters impacting an anode can produce an enormous quantity of RF. But instead of attempting to minimize the noise generated, Tesla was producing the conditions to optimize it! Basically, he was allowing a greater quantities of electrons to bunch up at the cathode and create more powerful, more plentiful, or larger EVOs. If he’d limited the current down to nothing, the voltage alone with minimal current would have been enough to produce some EVOs but the total output of longitudinal waves or magnetic vector potential would have been reduced.
There is probably a fine balance to be struck. If you use too high of a current, even if you prevent an arc discharge from forming, you waste input energy. If you use too little, fewer or smaller EVOs are produced which will limit your output. Anyone who’s going to build a device utilizing electron clusters to produce power (whether it is in a Tesla style spark gap in open atmosphere or in a pulsed abnormal glow discharge style tube) will have to perform a series of tests to find the sweet spot. One lesson, though, is that EMI/RF noise is likely a sign of SUCCESS when it comes to producing EVOs.