A Book Review of EV – A Tale of Discovery By Kenneth Shoulders

Not long ago I found myself with access to a very rare book written by Kenneth R. Shoulders that I’d been eager to read for quite a while. The chance to finally study EV – A Tale of Discovery excited me for many reasons. Primarily, over the past couple years and at a pace that has became exponential over the last few months, I’ve been attempting to study every scrap of information relating to the work of this highly intuitive inventor and engineer. In many of his more contemporary writings, I had found brief excerpts, a few images, or at most a page or two of text from the book. This made my desire to examine the book evolve into a growling hunger. Moreover, knowing his primary motivation for putting together and distributing the manuscript was to prevent the patent office from issuing a secrecy order that would have forever sequestered his discoveries further fueled my curiosity – like throwing gasoline onto a fire. My understanding is that after being warned of what was about to happen after submitting multiple patent applications, he spent weeks of intense effort composing the text and then sent it out to several of his closest associates, colleagues, and friends. When the authorities from the patent office called, he informed them of his actions; in response, they demanded he provide them with a list of everyone who’d received a copy. Bucking their continued effort to suppress his breakthroughs, he responded that the computer had eaten the list! They finally relented.

Immediately upon reading the first few pages, the tone of the book is set. This is not an academic text or anything resembling a formal research paper. Instead, it’s Ken Shoulders personal account, the story if you will, of the origins of his collaborative project, the works of others that inspired him, his early discoveries, the methods he used to learn more about the phenomenon, and the startling results he obtained. This is not to say there are not a multitude of technical details about his various test systems. Having some degree of scientific knowledge will help a reader understand what the author is trying to convey. However, the book is laid back enough to be interesting even to laymen. In the beginning, he mentions the location of his original laboratory located at his home forty miles south of San Francisco in the Santa Cruz mountains, identifies his partners scientist Harold Puthoff and businessman Bill Church, and even provides a picture of his workspace. In other portions of the text, after describing his non-traditional methods of approaching scientific research, he mentions his son and wife. Eventually, his son becomes his lab assistant along with an apprentice which isn’t identified.

Before discussing the technical contents of the book, I’d like to say that I feel like I have a better intuitive feeling for the personality of Shoulders. He seems likable and friendly, yet perhaps rigid in that he wouldn’t tolerate anything he considered was a waste of time. I could imagine him grumbling over a lab assistant doing something the “hard way” instead of doing it the, “right way.” Also, he was the kind of person who didn’t like to be controlled by others. If he wanted to stop or put on hold one line of experimentation, he wanted to be completely free to jump across and switch to something else. In this manner, I expect he was like Nikola Tesla. Although far from arrogant, Nikola Tesla was more of a leader than a follower, and I expect Shoulders was the same.

Kenneth Shoulders was originally told about vortex filaments by Winston Bostic in November of 1980. Bostic’s associate, Nardi, also mentioned that they could be guided electromagnetically. This fascinated Shoulders, and by the beginning of 1981 he was determined to start lab work. Immediately upon his first experiments, he started producing anomalous electron clusters that he described as EVs which stood for Electromagnetic Vortex or Electrum Validum which in Latin means, “Strong Electron.”

With theoretical support from Harold Puthoff and both inventive suggestions and financial backing from Bill Church, Shoulders continued to design and conduct experiments to learn more about these EVs. The goal was to eventually understand enough about them so as to be capable of producing some sort of economically viable energy source. He started off producing them by applying a fast high voltage pulse to a sharp cathode that could be a needle or a thin wire tip. These self organizing structures would form in the mix of electrons, positive ions, and metallic spray and then travel across to the anode. Upon striking, they would produce a range of effects including signature marks on the anode including rings, pits, trails, and sloshed metal that had been temporary transformed into a liquid by a non-thermal means before resolidifying. As the book continues, he describes more effects resulting from strikes on anodes or “witness plates” placed in front of them. This include sprays of metal vapor traveling at a tenth of the speed of light, x-ray production, bursts of visible light, and electro-magnetic pulses. By controlling the input voltage and the electrical properties of the target, he could either enhance the absorption of EVs into the metal or cause the structures to explode resulting in a release of both electrons and smaller EVs. The capabilities of these entities concerned him. One reason was because if a high enough input voltage was applied, surrounding electrical equipment not even connected to the setup could be damaged by the resulting electromagnetic radiation. To prevent damage to his equipment and to minimize safety risks, he would typically keep his input to a lower level around two kilovolts.

The production of EVs is only one subject mentioned in the book. He also describes how he learned how to control their movements and guide them along a path. By simply creating a narrow crevice in a dielectric slab of material, such as aluminum oxide, between the cathode and anode, he could make the EV travel in a straight line. This factoid may seem mundane; what’s so fancy or special about something moving linearly from one spot to another? The answer may surprise you! If he made the groove too narrow for the EV, by some less than fully understood mechanism, the likely torodial collection of electrons would borrow a wider path right through the high temperature ceramic. The removed material would then be sprayed out of the channel in the direction of EV movement! The implication here is obvious and staggering. For a minuscule amount of input energy to create the EV, an enormous amount of matter could be accelerated to high speed and transported a significant distance: an overunity gain mechanism. Likewise, the cluster of electrons could be propelled to anomalously high speeds (along with any heavier ions contained inside the structure) for a low amount of input energy. This is because there’s some sort of mass and inertia “screening” effect that’s at play allowing an EV composed of a huge number of electrons to exist as if it were only composed of a far smaller quantity – perhaps a ten thousandth or less. Papers published long after the distribution of this book explain how EVs can accelerate protons to speeds which allow them to have kinetic energies of millions of electron volts for very small inputs.

Gaining the knowledge of how to guide EVs in a straight line is only perhaps the most meager of his accomplishments. The text describes how he was able to generate an EV, split the single entity into multiple smaller EVs, and then recombine them at a point further along the guide track. Another interesting trick was to use the strike of one EV on an anode to induce a secondary emission from a sharp point (another emitter) on the opposite side. The book doesn’t reveal if he attempted to build a long series of such emitters, producing a chain reaction of EV emissions that could be compared to falling dominos. However, due to the implications of power multiplication (since the process of EVO creation is in and of itself a gainful process), I find it likely he attempted such a feat but didn’t publish the results.

As a reader moves through this fascinating story, he or she will read about many variations of EV generation methods, guidance systems, and detection tools he produced. For example, a sharp wire functioning as an emitter would eventually become blunted after a number of pulses resulting in the required voltage to increase significantly. To make such an emitter degrade more slowly, or potentially not at all, he designed systems that applied tiny drops of mercury and other metals with a low melting temperature to the very tip. Instead of each EV generation pulse removing metal from the wire or needle, a portion of the liquid metal would be hurled away, but easily replaced. Using these systems that continuously regenerated the cathode, he was able to produce EVs at high frequencies all the way up to the megahertz range although more typically in the hundreds of kilohertz. But he didn’t stop with such methods. Eventually, he investigated EV generation in heavy gases of krypton or xenon stimulated with RF radiation. Without any sharp point EVs could still be generated. He discovered that even an “ordinary” streamer from a Tesla coil would always be guided by an EV which could strike a target plate and leave unmistakable track marks.

Two particular tools he designed and built himself that stand out were a pin hole electron camera and a high speed oscilloscope. With these two devices he was able acquire more precise data and observe the EVs in action. Numerous pictures taken by this camera are included in the book. He admits that most of the images acquired were fuzzy and not overly clear; the camera was not using visual light to capture the EVs but the electrons they continually emitted. Despite the fact the EVs sometimes looked like blobs – the ionized plasma around themselves creating an obfuscation – he was able to learn a great deal about the structures. The fact that there were “white” EVs that existed in an excited, luminous state and “black” EVs that were almost invisible (barely interacting with matter and emitting few electrons) were one of his most significant discoveries. Using this knowledge, he devised techniques to shift EVs from white states, through a long series of gray states, to black states — and back again!

Rapidly, Shoulders realized that this was a ubiquitous phenomenon, happening everywhere both in nature and technological devices. He makes it clear that wherever there is a spark there has been an EV produced, even if small or existing only for an instant. Even rubbing your socks against a carpeted floor and touching a metal door knob creating a static electric discharge produces an EV! Thus, the challenge in studying this new class of structured particle, called “strange radiation” by some researchers, is not producing the EVs but controlling their movements to do something practical with them. In the latter portion of his book, he describes the attempt of his team to produce a “Traveling Wave” EV circulating device that was hoped to be developed into a practical energy source. In significant detail he describes their efforts and the repeated problems they faced, leading them to move on from project. This difficulty seemed to be making the EV behave exactly the same way every single time, in a device they hoped to cycle at a high rate of speed. Basically, I don’t view this as any sign of a deficiency in the potential of EVs themselves, but only an insufficiency of his small team to understand how to guide them with absolute precision. Like felines, they can be directed to do one thing or another, but sometimes they just do what they want to do for reasons that are not obvious.

The book, EV – A Tale of Discovery, is a fantastic foundation that when combined with Shoulders later writings provides a more detailed view of the EV phenomenon. Readers who are not familiar with his research should realize this book was distributed in 1986 and he performed additional work for many years. In later documents published on his website, he went into more detail about the potential of EVs, which he later re-named EVOs or “Exotic Vacuum Objects.” As the possible universal catalyst for all forms of “cold fusion” and LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) and the mechanism by which UFOs manipulate gravity and inertia, the existence of the EVO may have enormous implications. If mainstream science catches up with Kenneth Shoulders, humanity may one day be capable to harness the energy of the vacuum to advance our civilization to the next level.

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